Sino-Foreign Co-operative Joint Venture (CJV)

A Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture (CJV) is a joint venture between a Chinese and a foreign company within the territory of China. The Chinese company usually provides the labour, land use rights and factory buildings, while the foreign company brings in the necessary technology and key equipment, as well as the capital. This joint venture is based on a cooperative joint venture contract in which matters like the terms of cooperation, the division of earnings, the ownership of property upon the termination of the contract term of the CJV, the sharing of risks and losses, etc are laid down.

Greater flexibility in the structuring of a cooperative venture is also permissible including the structure of the organization, management, and assets. There is no term for unlimited terms in cooperative ventures, but also no provisions for the term of the duration. The term of the cooperative venture contract may be renewed subject to the consent of the parties involved and approval from the examination and approval authorities. The foreign investor is permitted to withdraw their registered capital or a portion thereof from the cooperative venture during the duration of the cooperative venture contract.

Differences between an EJV and a CJV

  • An EJV is always a legal person, and thus a limited liability companywhereas a CJV can be a legal as well as a non-legal person. The latter option is not very common though because it would mean that the partners of the joint venture would be personally liable for any losses the company might make in the future
  • In an EJV the distribution of profits has to take place equivalent to the ratio of the capital contributions made by the parties, while the distribution in a CJV can take place according to the parties' wishes. A CJV is thus a lot more flexible than an EJV.
  • In a CJV a party may, besides contributing registered capital, provide for so-called cooperative conditions (Hence the name Cooperative Joint Venture), e.g. market access rights.